متن انگلیسی پژوهش عملیاتی با ترجمه

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
1849 بازدید

Operations research

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Operations research, operational research, or simply OR, is the use of mathematical models, statistics and algorithms to aid in decision-making. It is most often used to analyze complex real-world systems, typically with the goal of improving or optimizing performance. It is one form of applied mathematics.

Contents

  • 1 Operations research in context
  • 2 Areas of application
  • 3 Professional societies
  • 4 Origins and the name
  • 5 Examples
  • 6 See also
  • 7 External links

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Operations research in context

The terms operations research and management science are often used synonymously. When a distinction is drawn, management science generally implies a closer relationship to the problems of business management.

Operations research also closely relates to industrial engineering. Industrial engineering takes more of an engineering point of view, and industrial engineers typically consider OR techniques to be a major part of their toolset

 

 

 

5صفحه متن انگلیسی فایل ورد (Word) فونت 14 با ترجمه فارسی

 

قیمت 5000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید

 


ترجمه آماده پژوهش عملیاتی

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
2248 بازدید

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
OA key focus for management is determining steps that can achieve Productivity Gain – and doing it before the competition. A valuable tool in this quest is operations research (O.R.), a field devoted to the creation and management of productivity gain. Operations researchers identify ways to achieve high levels of performance. They approach productivity gain by uniquely conceptualizing problems at the organizational level. Their solutions flow naturally from the way they describe, understand, appreciate, and represent these problems. An operations researchers’ approach is to analyze traditional quantities, such as profit, cost, efficiency, and other practical, measurable items. Operations research, the discipline of applying advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions, has come to be known as “the science of better.” Organizations that don’t rely on O.R. to identify the opportunities to improve productivity that are inherent in their firms’ structure will likely operate below potential. The range of savings generated by O.R. models is broad, from modest to billions of dollars. Examples of productivity gains that would not otherwise have existed are seen in case studies of Sears, Weyerhaeuser, National Car Rental, Taco Bell, HP, and Procter & Gamble.
We all know that some people are better executives than others. This is true at even the most senior levels within an organization.
Question: the skillful execution of what kind of task is most central, most important in your own definition of excellence in general management?
There are quite a few potential candidates for this honor and, of course, the list will vary somewhat from business to business. Some answers will focus on abilities like strategic insight and seasoned judgment. Others will emphasize interpersonal skills, character and leadership. Many will reflect such fundamental truths as that good management is all about creating a perfect organization from a large number of imperfect parts.
One type of response will surely stress the uniquely managerial responsibility for creating more and more out of less and less, for getting the very most out of the limited and expensive human, material and financial resources available to that executive. It’s this definition, togeth

 

10صفحه متن انگلیسی فایل ورد (Word) فونت 14 بهمراه 10 ص ترجمه قیمت 6000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید


ترجمه آماده حسابداری دولتی

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
1324 بازدید

چرا حسابداری دولتی و گزارش گری دولتی جدا هستند و باید متفاوت باشند.

WHY GOVERNMENTAL ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL

 

REPORTING IS—AND SHOULD BE—DIFFERENT

 

 

 

Executive Summary

 

Governments are fundamentally different from for-profit business enterprises in several

important ways. They have different purposes, processes of generating revenues, stakeholders,

budgetary obligations, and propensity for longevity. These differences require separate

accounting and financial reporting standards in order to provide information to meet the needs of

stakeholders to assess government accountability and to make political, social, and economic

decisions. Although state and local governments in the United States have had separate standards

for over 100 years, occasionally the question is raised: Why can’t general purpose governments

(cities and counties, for example) simply apply the standards established for business

enterprises?1  The following questions and answers briefly address that issue, and the


accompanying paper and its appendixes provide an expanded discussion

 

 

34صفحه متن انگلیسی فایل ورد (Word) فونت 14 بهمراه 31 ص ترجمه قیمت

 

10000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید

 


ريسک سود مازاد ارزش‌ های ذاتی و قيمت‌ های سهام( متن انگلیسی با ترجمه)

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
1105 بازدید

ترجمه مقاله

ريسك سود مازاد ارزش‌های ذاتی و قيمت‌های سهام

 

نوشته:

استفن پي باجينسكي ـ جيمز ام والن

 

Residual income risk, intrinsic values, and share prices.
by Stephen P. Baginski and James M. Wahlen
Empirical accounting research provides surprisingly little evidence on whether accounting
earnings numbers capture cross-sectional differences in risk that are associated with
cross-sectional differences in share prices. We address two questions regarding the
risk-relevance of accounting numbers: (1) Are accounting-related risk measures (i.e., the
systematic risk and total volatility in a firm’s time-series of residual return on equity) associated
with the market’s assessment and pricing of equity risk? (2) If so, then are these
accounting-related risk measures incrementally associated with the market’s assessment and
pricing of equity risk beyond other observable factors, such as those in the Fama and French
(1992) three-factor model?
We develop an accounting-fundamentals-based measure of the market’s pricing of risk--the
difference between actual share price and a residual income valuation model estimate of share
value using risk-free rates of return. Our results show that both systematic risk and total volatility
in residual return on equity partially explain this pricing differential, and that the explanatory
power of total volatility is incremental to the Fama and French (1992) factors--market beta, firm
size, and the market-to-book ratio

 

29صفحه متن انگلیسی فایل ورد (Word) فونت 14 بهمراه 59 ص ترجمه قیمت 9000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید

.


متن انگلیسی حسابداری دولتی با ترجمه

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
1893 بازدید

Governance structures and accounting
at large municipalities
Gary Giroux a,*, Andrew J. McLelland b
a Department of Accounting, Mays Business School, Texas A&M University, 4353 TAMU,
College Station, TX 77843-4353, USA
b Auburn University, USA
Abstract
Either Mayor–Council or Council–Manager forms of governance operate most cities
in the US, with a slow trend toward Council–Manager cities. Theoretical modeling
suggests that the Council–Manager form should be more efficient, since the city manager
has greater incentives to increase financial and accounting performance relative to
the mayor as chief executive officer. However, two sets of factors may be more important
for municipal comparisons. Since the mid-1980s, regulations of state and local
governments have intensified. At the same time, economic conditions improved dramatically.
Consequently, these two factors might be more relevant to evaluate the financial
and accounting conditions in large cities. The purpose of this paper is to test the
significance of governance structure on accounting disclosure levels and financial condition,
based on samples of large cities from the early 1980s and the mid-1990s. The
findings support the perspective that city manager cities substantially outperform
Mayor–Council cities on major dimensions examined in both univariate and multivariate
tests. Large municipalities improved on key financial and accounting variables
from 1983 to 1996. Council–Manager cities maintained superiority over Mayor–Council
cities for accounting disclosure in both periods. Council–Manager cities were significantly
better in financial condition in 1983, but the evidence for 1996 was mixed.
 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Governmental accounting; Corporate governance; Government regulation; Disclosure

 

28صفحه متن انگلیسی فونت 14 بهمراه 31 ص ترجمه قیمت 7000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید

;


ترجمه آماده سرمایه گذاری مشتری رشته حسابداری

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
868 بازدید

The Use of
Customer Portfolio Theory
An Empirical Survey

Introduction
Portfolio theory was first developed to be
used in financial investment decision making
during the 1950s (Markowitz, 1952). The
main inputs for portfolio evaluation in
financial investment decisions were
postulated as being “expected return” and
“degree of risk”. Portfolio theory has,
however, since been applied in areas other
than finance. The initial area of application
was in auditing product programs (Marvin,
1972), where individual products or groups
of products were analyzed in terms of their
current and future market share, sales,
volume, costs and investment requirements.
Subsequently, the portfolio approach received
increasing attention from corporate strategists
(Ansoff and Leontiades, 1976; Hedley, 1977;
Hofer and Schendell, 1978; Wind and
Douglas, 1981) all of whom have been
primarily concerned with the classification
of products and/or businesses on certain key
dimensions in order to assist in the
achievement of corporate strategic objectives.
Key dimensions have included market share,
market growth, market attractiveness and
competitive position depending on which
model has been offered. Regardless of the
dimensions used, the basic idea is that the
positions of the units on the grid should
determine the formulation of the most
appropriate strategy.
Portfolio theory is essentially concerned,
therefore, with facilitating decisions in the
allocation of finite resources among different
assets, be it financial investments, products
or strategic business units. These finite
resources may be used in alternative ways
to achieve agreed objectives.
There have also, however, been many
critics of portfolio theory, who have
suggested that a portfolio simply facilitates
visualization rather than serving as an
analytical and prescriptive tool in itself.
In other words, critics say that portfolio
analyses do not provide strategic answers for
resource allocation and strategy formulation.
They do stress, however, that they can aid
decision making but would have to be used
with caution.
Customer Portfolio Analysis
The application of portfolio theory to
customers is a more recent phenomenon.
In theory, marketers can check the basic
soundness of each customer against its
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 9 No. 3, 2009,
pp. 6-18, © MCB University Press, 0885-8624

13صفحه متن انگلیسی فونت 14 بهمراه 31 ص ترجمه قیمت 5000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید

 


ترجمه آماده مدیریت ایمنی

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
2120 بازدید

SAFETY
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
Version: 3.2
Issued: 18 May 2006
Authority: Division of Human Resources (Environment, Health and Safety)
Next Review: May 2007

© Copyright of Charles Sturt University 2000

 

 

88صفحه متن انگلیسی فونت 14 بهمراه 151 ص ترجمه قیمت 15000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید


ترجمه آماده مدیریت تفکر

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
1876 بازدید

 

 

Secret of Success: As Christensen's Paradox testifies, finding the secret of success takes more than textbook management

Nov 2003

Robert Heller

Medieval man searched for the philosopher's stone that could turn base metal into gold. Managers and entrepreneurs often follow a similar, usually vain hope. But it needn't be vain, judged by the results of companies in one industry. They achieved $62 billion in sales in 1976-1994, twenty times the figure for rivals which hadn't found the stone.

If that isn't convincing enough, sales per firm in the lagging group only averaged a cumulative $64.5 million: the successes averaged $1.9 billion - a difference of 29 times. The statistics come from a truly remarkable management book by Clayton M. Christensen. Its explicit title, The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, does less than justice to its message, which applies to all managements and all companies all the time - and not only to innovators.

The philosopher's stone in the statistics cited above, however, is innovation in 'disruptive technologies'. The successes 'sought growth by entering small emerging markets'. The back-markers, in contrast, pursued growth in large markets. Both groups took risks. The winners took the chance that an emerging market for the disruptive technology might not appear at all. The losers accepted the competitive risk of battling against established companies in established markets - and the first lesson is that this is fundamentally poor strategy.

MANAGEMENT PARADOX
The book's wholly convincing thesis, however, is that large companies are locked into this mode. They are forced by customer demands and competitive pressures to invest heavily to sustain their existing strengths and, if possible, to enhance that prowess. This gives rise to Christensen's Paradox. The conventional explanation when great firms stumble is that they suffer from 'incompetence, bureaucracy, arrogance, tired executive blood, poor planning, and short-term investment horizons.' The Paradox, however, states that large companies fail, absolutely or relatively, in face of disruptive technologies, not because they are poorly managed, but because their management is excellent

 

6صفحه متن انگلیسی فونت 14 بهمراه 14 ص ترجمه قیمت 5000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید

.


ترجمه آماده مقاله مدیریت مالی

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
1783 بازدید

Financial management

Chapter 2
Basic Financial Statements


The accounting process
Financial Statements
The Accounting Equation
Chart of Accounts



Chapter 2 introduces you to the basic financial statements used to communicate a company's financial information to outsiders - parties other than the company's directors and managers, who are the "insiders."

What is a financial statement? What does it tell us? Why should we care?
T hese are good questions and they deserve an answer. 

A business is a financial entity separate from its owners. Each business must keep financial records. A number of federal and state laws require this. But even if there were no laws, it would still be a good idea anyway.  Businesses provide vital goods and services to those living in the community. They provide jobs for people, and tax dollars that improve our roads, parks and schools. It is in everyone's best interest that our community's businesses be successful.

B usiness owners take a risk. What if no one wants to buy their goods or services? The owner has spent time and money to start a business, purchased land, buildings and equipment, hired people to work in the business.... all this done with the hope that the business will be successful. And if the business is NOT a success, the owner may have lost his or her life's savings, workers must find jobs, and creditors may go unpaid

6صفحه متن انگلیسی فونت 14 بهمراه 15 ص ترجمه قیمت 6000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید

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مقاله انگلیسی دارایی و سرمایه در مدیریت با ترجمه

دسته بندی: ترجمه آماده
1512 بازدید

The implications of the new capital adequacy
rules for portfolio management of credit assets
Wolfgang Hammes *, Mark Shapiro
McKinsey & Company, Inc., 55 East 52nd Street, New York, NY 10022, USA
Abstract
Over the past several years, there has been an extensive discussion among practitioners
and academics about whether and how a portfolio management approach could
help banks to better manage risk capital and create shareholder value. In this article, the
authors argue that there are four key drivers which require banks to move from a
transactional to a more portfolio management like approach when managing credit
assets. These are: structural changes in the credit markets, ineciencies of risk transfer
in lending markets, ballooning debt levels in the US, and the proposed changes for
capital adequacy. The authors see the latter not as a one-time change in capital adequacy
rules, but more as a ®rst step towards full convergence between risk capital and
regulatory capital for credit risk. These changes require banks to accelerate their e€orts
to build ®rst class portfolio management skills and capabilities. Achieving best practice
credit portfolio management is rewarded with attractive opportunities for shareholder
value creation and enables bank to successfully compete going forward. Ó 2001 Elsevier
Science B.V. All rights reserved.
JEL classi®cation: G11; G20; G21
Keywords: Capital regulation; Portfolio management; Credit risk

 

18صفحه متن انگلیسی فونت 14 بهمراه 18 ص ترجمه قیمت 7000 تومان

 

پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید

 اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید